Expose BLM’s backdoor to slaughter!

How many are left?

When I first heard about wild horses in the Pryor Mountains being brutally rounded up in 2009, Nevada was home to 80% of America’s federally protected wild horses. Wyoming was the next state who had the most wild horses and California only had a few herds left.

Today Nevada has only about 50% of America’s wild horses and I believe California now has the second largest population. In Wyoming, the feds are proposing to remove another 1,029 wild horses. One of their former congresswomen even wanted to kill them!

The Department of Interior is giving away grants for university students in Wyoming to cruelly collar mares from the Adobe Town herd. They want to find out where they hide in the desert. Then the agency in charge of protecting them can find them and wipe out the ancient Adobe Town mustangs too.

Invasive cruelty against America’s wild horses must stop. The law states they are to be left alone and not be abused. How dare they collar wild horses! This harassment will cause deaths and these deaths will be hidden. . . Hidden like the others.

The deception continues. People who once spoke out against mustang cruelty back in 2009 are now mute because they are playing a political game to get what they want. I’m disgusted and will never sell out. Never.

In 8 years of roundups, experiments, removals, pesticides for “birth control”, 3-Strikes to sell truckloads for slaughter and taxpayer-funded propaganda campaigns, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has decimated America’s wild herds on public land. Now wild horses are in danger of dying out because they lack genetic diversity, population and strength. Natural selection is being ruined by the “one foal” on the range breeding programs run by Pesticide PZP darters in partnership with BLM. Remember Pesticide PZP sterilizes wild horses after multiple use. Yes sterilizes. The public is fooled by those trusted to manage the last American wild horses and their nonprofit partners peddling for donations to “help” them.

Overpopulation is a lie. Population control is based on a false premise that wild horses are “pests”. Follow the money behind population control experiments and the donation cash cow for the nonprofit who claims they solved the wild horse “problem”.

Know the truth: Wild horses are native wildlife, period. Cattle and sheep are not.

Right now we are witnessing a wild horse and burro underpopulation crisis in the West. This is our last chance to help America’s wild horses and burros survive the ugly greed wiping out our herds. It’s time to expose the overpopulation lies. It’s time to expose all the trucks sneaking wild stallions to slaughter over the borders. . . expose the lies that there are “too many” wild horses on public land. Count them.

The truth must be exposed by your elected officials now before it’s too late.

I urge you to sign and share the petition to investigate the wild horse and burro count in captivity and freedom: https://www.change.org/p/u-s-senate-investigate-the-wild-horse-burro-count-in-captivity-and-freedom Join us to double the numbers on the petition in the next 7 days!

America won’t be the same without our iconic wild symbols of liberty running freely on public land . . . The wild herds are to be protected by the law–but because of the greed for resources (oil, gas, livestock grazing, etc.) the law is being twisted, lies are spread in the media and spoon-fed to your elected officials acting on your behalf.

It’s time to know how many wild horses and burros are really left so we can all stand up to protect them.

Prayers and miracles are needed right now. Please contact me if you can help with a lawsuit to save America’s last wild horses and burros.

For the Wild Ones,
Anne Novak
Volunteer Executive Director
Protect Mustangs

Contact@ProtectMustangs.org

Protect Mustangs is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization dedicated to the protection and preservation of native and wild horses. www.ProtectMustangs.org



Wild horses impacted in BoLM’s landscape project (Carson district)

PM Photo WY © Stephaie Thomson

Please comment to help the wild horses stay on public land and stop the BoLM from using herbicides

From a BoLM press release:

Carson City, Nev. – The Bureau of Land Management (BoLM), Carson City District, Stillwater Field Office, has completed an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Cow Canyon, Clan Alpine, and Dixie Valley Allotments Landscape Project. The BoLM is also seeking public input under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act for the Project. This includes seeking information and identifying historic properties in our near the Project area. Public comments will be accepted through September 26, 2016.

The EA analyzes seven alternatives that include proposals for livestock grazing permit renewals, range improvements, wild horse management, community mineral material pit designation, invasive, nonnative and noxious weed treatments, interim visual resource management class establishment and adaptive management.  The alternatives include changes in season of use proposals, reductions in livestock numbers proposals, no grazing and the no action alternative (status quo).

The EA and associated documents are available on the Project webpage at: http://bit.ly/2blRZFp  during the 30-day comment period.  Please send written comments to Linda Appel, Project Lead at the address in the letterhead, via fax at (775) 885-6147 or via email to: blm_nv_ccdgrazingea@blm.gov. Comments should include “CCD Landscape Project EA” in the subject line. If you have any questions, please contact Linda Appel or Angelica Rose at 775-885-6000 or at the above address.  For input or questions regarding historic properties please contact Jason Wright at 775-885-6015 or the address in the letterhead above.

-BLM-

 

#URGENT: File a complaint against Nazi-like population control experiments on America’s wild horses!

The clock is ticking. Oregon State University isn’t stopping. They are going ahead with their Nazi-like population control experiments on wild mares and a lot of them are pregnant! The experiments were encouraged by a bunch of sick pro-slaughter, pro-cattle activists that work in darkness to bring the “final solutions” to America’s underpopulated wild horses and burros. These people have no soul. They have no empathy for the suffering these horrible experiments will inflict on WILD horses . . . wild animals . . . wildlife . . . that the law was supposed to protect.

Take action right now and fill out this Animal Welfare Complaint: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/animalwelfare/complaint-form. Mention that the procedures used to sterilize wild horses in the experiments at Oregon State University and elsewhere are cruel. Let them know that wild horses are underpopulated and the basis for these heinous experiments is false. Underpopulated wild horses and burros in America don’t need population control or birth control.

America’s wild horses and burros need your help to live and survive on public land set aside for them in 1971–the public sanctuary that is open 24/7 at no charge. The wild ones need YOU to go to your elected officials’ home offices and push for their protection.

Please also send an email to your congressman/woman and your 2 senators. Their contact information is here: http://www.contactingthecongress.org/ Short handwritten letters have the most impact as elected officials see them representing the opinion of 1000 voters.

Ignore anyone who says birth control is a tool in the stupid toolbox. Who’s toolbox are they talking about?

Ignore the spin doctors claiming they are overpopulated. It’s a lie.

The Bureau of Land Management’s (BoLM) claim there are 67,000 wild horses and burros combined in all western states is based on no more than an inflated guess. The BoLM have no headcount and no evidence according to the National Academy of Sciences. Even if there were 67,000 wild horses and burros left in the wild that would be too few to survive serious changes in climate, disease and environmental disaster. Do you want to see our majestic symbols of freedom and the American spirit become extinct forever? No you don’t, so take action. Your voice counts.

Don’t get distracted from the facts:

America’s wild horses and burros are being wiped off public land because greedy people and corporations with no conscious want to exploit the wild ones’ territory for profit–big profit. These people who are out for big money need to find the win-win, respect the environment and learn to work with–not annihilate–the last free roaming wild horses and burros. After all, wild horses prevent wildfires that could hurt their money making projects (oil and gas wells, solar energy zones, mining, etc.) These people should realize cattle will never roam like wild horses do and therefore cannot replace the wild herds for fire prevention.

Stop BLM from EXPERIMENTING on wild mares!

Tell your friends, family, co-workers and neighbors what’s going on and tune into our website daily for updates on the fight to save America’s wild horses! www.ProtectMustangs.org There are a lot of ways you can help by using your voice right from your computer. If we all don’t do something now then hundreds of wild horses will be cruelly carved up in Nazi-like population control experiments to rid the land of wild horses. Our beloved wild ones have been wrongfully labelled “pests” in the Pesticide PZP EPA application. Also based on the overpopulation lie, thousands of wild horses could end up at slaughter soon if they are not all accounted for and placed in safe homes.

Your elected officials need to be contacted regularly by email, handwritten letters and in meetings to stop the abuse against wild horses and keep them living in real freedom. . . in the wild.

It’s time to send an email requesting an appointment to get your elected officials involved in protecting America’s iconic wild horses and burros. Yes really protect them–not forcibly drug them with Pesticide PZP or sterilize them.

Do you realize YOUR voices in government have been fed a bunch of lies based on a false premise from other elected officials, lobbyists and traitor “advocates” as well? Follow the money . . . Then move beyond that to real “solutions” to protect real freedom. Make your voice heard.

From the Team at Protect Mustangs
www.ProtectMustangs.org

a member for the Alliance for Wild Horses and Burros

Protect Mustangs is an organization who protects and preserves native and wild horses.




Help fund NATIVE WILD HORSES™ the documentary

 

Native Wild Horses™

Please help support the documentary NATIVE WILD HORSES™, a film by Anne Novak, to educate and inspire people to stand up for America’s vanishing icons of freedom. Right now we need your help to film in Wyoming before the Bureau of Land Management roundup wipes out the Divide Basin, Adobe Town and Salt Wells herds.

Buying someone else’s Wyoming footage would be too expensive, not have our point of view and often filmmakers want to keep their footage for their exclusive use–so it’s not even an option.

You can go to our homepage at www.ProtectMustangs.org to make a donation to the documentary NATIVE WILD HORSES™ and make a difference for these magnificent wild creatures who deserve to remain forever wild and free.

We also have a tax-deductible fundraiser here http://www.gofundme.com/ejjcwo for the Wyoming leg of the shoot. Everyone who donates $200 and up will be thanked in the credits because we are so grateful for your support of the documentary.

America’s wild horses deserve to be seen and protected forever.

 

Petition to grant a 10-year moratorium on wild horse roundups for recovery and studies

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Wyoming, March 2014: BLM’s stealth roundup of 41 American wild horses

The issue

Science must start guiding the management policy of Americas wild horses and burros on public land.

It’s time for real science for real solutions.

We need scientific studies on population, migration, holistic land management and more before the government continues to roundup or tamper with America’s equine herds using permanent/temporary sterilization or kill them. We support wild horse and burro recovery on public land.

Right now the feds are managing our indigenous wild horses and burros to extinction. They want to aggressively sterilize the herds. There is “no evidence” of overpopulation according to the National Academy of Sciences 2013 report.

Together we can turn this around.

The Petition

To:
Sally Jewell, Secretary of Interior
President of the United States
U.S. Senate
U.S. House of Representatives
Rep. Tom Rooney, Florida-17
Sen. Tom Harkin, Iowa
Sen. Dick Durbin, Illinois
Sen. Mary Landrieu, Louisiana
Sen. Barbara Mikulski, Maryland
Sen. Barbara Boxer, California
Rep. Nancy Pelosi, California-12
Rep. Barbara Lee, California-13
Sen. Mark Kirk, Illinois
Rep. Raul Grijalva, Arizona-03
Sen. Dianne Feinstein, California
Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz, Florida-23
Rep. John Garamendi, California-03
Science must start guiding the management policy of America’s wild horses and burros on public land.

It’s time for real science for real solutions.

We need scientific studies on population, migration, holistic land management and more before the government continues to roundup or tamper with America’s equine herds using permanent/temporary sterilization or kill them.

Right now the feds are managing our indigenous wild horses and burros to extinction. They want to aggressively sterilize the herds. There is “no evidence” of overpopulation according to the National Academy of Sciences 2013 report.

We support wild horse and burro recovery on public land and request your help.

Sincerely,
[Your name]

Please sign and share the petition now. Here is the link: https://www.change.org/p/sally-jewell-urgent-grant-a-10-year-moratorium-on-wild-horse-roundups-for-recovery-and-studies

Wild Horses as Native North American Wildlife

Wild Horses @ Peace (Photo ©Anne Novak, all rights reserved.)

Wild Horses @ Peace (Photo ©Anne Novak, all rights reserved.)

by Jay F. Kirkpatrick, Ph.D. and Patricia M. Fazio, Ph.D. (Revised January 2010)

© 2003‐2010, Drs. Jay F. Kirkpatrick and Patricia M. Fazio. All Rights Reserved.

Are wild horses truly “wild,” as an indigenous species in North America, or are they “feral weeds” – barnyard escapees, far removed genetically from their prehistoric ancestors? The question at hand is, therefore, whether or not modern horses, Equus caballus, should be considered native wildlife.

The question is legitimate, and the answer important. In North America, the wild horse is often labeled as a non‐native, or even an exotic species, by most federal or state agencies dealing with wildlife management, such as the National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Bureau of Land Management. The legal mandate for many of these agencies is to protect native wildlife and prevent non‐native species from causing harmful effects on the general ecology of the land. Thus, management is often directed at total eradication, or at least minimal numbers. If the idea that wild horses were, indeed, native wildlife, a great many current management approaches might be compromised. Thus, the rationale for examining this proposition, that the horse is a native or non-native species, is significant.

The genus Equus, which includes modern horses, zebras, and asses, is the only surviving genus in a once diverse family of horses that included 27 genera. The precise date of origin for the genus Equus is unknown, but evidence documents the dispersal of Equus from North America to Eurasia approximately 2‐3 million years ago and a possible origin at about 3.4‐3.9 million years ago. Following this original emigration, several extinctions occurred in North America, with additional migrations to Asia (presumably across the Bering Land Bridge), and return migrations back to North America, over time. The last North American extinction probably occurred between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago (Fazio 1995), although more recent extinctions for horses have been suggested. Dr. Ross MacPhee, Curator of Mammalogy at the American Museum of Natural History, and colleagues, have dated the existence of woolly mammoths and horses in North America to as recent as 7,600 years ago. Had it not been for previous westward migration, over the 2 Bering Land Bridge, into northwestern Russia (Siberia) and Asia, the horse would have faced complete extinction. However, Equus survived and spread to all continents of the globe, except Australia and Antarctica.

In 1493, on Columbus’ second voyage to the Americas, Spanish horses, representing E. caballus, were brought back to North America, first in the Virgin Islands, and, in 1519, they were reintroduced on the continent, in modern‐day Mexico, from where they radiated throughout the American Great Plains, after escape from their owners or by pilfering (Fazio 1995).

Critics of the idea that the North American wild horse is a native animal, using only selected paleontological data, assert that the species, E. caballus (or the caballoid horse), which was introduced in 1519, was a different species from that which disappeared between 13,000‐11,000 years before. Herein lies the crux of the debate. However, neither paleontological opinion nor modern molecular genetics support the contention that the modern horse in North America is non‐native.

Equus, a monophyletic taxon, is first represented in the North American fossil record about four million years ago by E. simplicidens, and this species is directly ancestral to later Blancan species about three million years ago (Azaroli and Voorhies 1990). Azzaroli (1992) believed, again on the basis of fossil records, that E. simplicidensgave rise to the late Pliocene E. Idahoensis, and that species, in turn, gave rise to the first caballoid horses two million years ago in North America. Some migrated to Asia about one million years ago, while others, such as E. niobrarensis, remained in North America.

In North America, the divergence of E. caballus into various ecomorphotypes (breeds) included E. caballus mexicanus, or the American Periglacial Horse (also known as E. caballus laurentius Hay, or midlandensis Quinn) (Hibbard 1955). Today, we would recognize these latter two horses as breeds, but in the realm of wildlife, the term used is subspecies. By ecomorphotype, we refer to differing phenotypic or physical characteristics within the same species, caused by genetic isolation in discrete habitats. In North America, isolated lower molar teeth and a mandible from sites of the Irvingtonian age appear to be E. caballus, morphologically. Through most of the Pleistocene Epoch in North America, the commonest species of Equus were not caballines but other lineages (species) resembling zebras, hemiones, and possibly asses (McGrew 1944; Quinn, 1957). 3 Initially rare in North America, caballoid horses were associated with stenoid horses (perhaps ancestral forerunners but certainly distinct species), but between one million and 500,000 years ago, the caballoid horses replaced the stenoid horses because of climatic preferences and changes in ecological niches (Forstén 1988). By the late Pleistocene, the North American taxa that can definitely be assigned to E. caballus are E. caballus alaskae (Azzaroli 1995) and E. caballus mexicanus (Winans 1989 – using the name laurentius). Both subspecies were thought to have been derived from E. niobrarensis (Azzaroli 1995).

Thus, based on a great deal of paleontological data, the origin of E. caballus is thought to be about two million years ago, and it originated in North America. However, the determination of species divergence based on phenotype is at least modestly subjective and often fails to account for the differing ecomorphotypes within a species, described above. Purely taxonomic methodologies looked at physical form for classifying animals and plants, relying on visual observations of physical characteristics. While earlier taxonomists tried to deal with the subjectivity of choosing characters they felt would adequately describe, and thus group, genera and species, these observations were lacking in precision. Nevertheless, the more subjective paleontological data strongly suggests the origin of E. caballus somewhere between one and two million years ago.

Reclassifications are now taking place, based on the power and objectivity of molecular biology. If one considers primate evolution, for example, the molecular biologists have provided us with a completely different evolutionary pathway for humans, and they have described entirely different relationships with other primates. None of this would have been possible prior to the methodologies now available through mitochondrial‐DNA analysis.

A series of genetic analyses, carried out at the San Diego Zoo’s Center for Reproduction in Endangered Species, and based on chromosome differences (Benirschke et al. 1965) and mitochondrial genes (George and Ryder 1986) both indicate significant genetic divergence among several forms of wild E. caballus as early as 200,000‐300,000 years ago. These studies do not speak to the origins of E. caballus per se, but they do point to a great deal of genetic divergence among members of E. caballus by 200,000 to 300,000 years ago. Thus, the origin had to be earlier, but, at the very least, well before the disappearance of the horse in North America between 13,000‐11,000 years ago. 4 The relatively new (30‐year‐old) field of molecular biology, using mitochondrial‐DNA analysis, has recently revealed that the modern or caballine horse, E. caballus, is genetically equivalent to E. lambei, a horse, according to fossil records, that represented the most recent Equus species in North America prior to extinction. Not only is E. caballus genetically equivalent to E. lambei, but no evidence exists for the origin of E. caballus anywhere except North America (Forstén 1992).

According to the work of researchers from Uppsala University of the Department of Evolutionary Biology (Forstén 1992), the date of origin, based on mutation rates for mitochondrial‐DNA, for E. caballus, is set at approximately 1.7 million years ago in North America. This, of course, is very close, geologically speaking, to the 1‐2 million‐year figure presented by the interpretation of the fossil record.

Carles Vilà, also of the Department of Evolutionary Biology at Uppsala University, has corroborated Forstén’s work. Vilà et al. (2001) have shown that the origin of domestic horse lineages was extremely widespread, over time and geography, and supports the existence of the caballoid horse in North American before its disappearance, corroborating the work of Benirschke et al. (1965), George and Ryder (1995), and Hibbard (1955).

A study conducted at the Ancient Biomolecules Centre of Oxford University (Weinstock et al. 2005) also corroborates the conclusions of Forstén (1992). Despite a great deal of variability in the size of the Pleistocene equids from differing locations (mostly ecomorphotypes), the DNA evidence strongly suggests that all of the large and small caballine samples belonged to the same species. The author states, “The presence of a morphologically variable caballine species widely distributed both north and south of the North American ice sheets raises the tantalizing possibility that, in spite of many taxa named on morphological grounds, most or even all North American caballines were members of the same species.”

In another study, Kruger et al. (2005), using microsatellite data, confirms the work of Forstén (1992) but gives a wider range for the emergence of the caballoid horse, of 0.86 to 2.3 million years ago. At the latest, however, that still places the caballoid horse in North America 860,000 years ago. 5 The work of Hofreiter et al. (2001), examining the genetics of the so-called E. lambei from the permafrost of Alaska, found that the variation was within that of modern horses, which translates into E. lambeiactually being E. caballus, genetically. The molecular biology evidence is incontrovertible and indisputable, but it is also supported by the interpretation of the fossil record, as well.

Finally, very recent work (Orlando et al. 2009) that examined the evolutionary history of a variety of non‐caballine equids across four continents, found evidence for taxonomic “oversplitting” from species to generic levels. This overspitting was based primarily on late‐Pleistocene fossil remains without the benefit of molecular data. A co‐author of this study, Dr. Alan Cooper, of the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, stated, “Overall, the new genetic results suggest that we have underestimated how much a single species can vary over time and space, and mistakenly assumed more diversity among extinct species of megafauna.”

The fact that horses were domesticated before they were reintroduced matters little from a biological viewpoint. They are the same species that originated here, and whether or not they were domesticated is quite irrelevant. Domestication altered little biology, and we can see that in the phenomenon called “going wild,” where wild horses revert to ancient behavioral patterns. Feist and McCullough (1976) dubbed this “social conservation” in his paper on behavior patterns and communication in the Pryor Mountain wild horses. The reemergence of primitive behaviors, resembling those of the plains zebra, indicated to him the shallowness of domestication in horses.

The issue of feralization and the use of the word “feral” is a human construct that has little biological meaning except in transitory behavior, usually forced on the animal in some manner. Consider this parallel. E. Przewalskii (Mongolian wild horse) disappeared from Mongolia a hundred years ago. It has survived since then in zoos. That is not domestication in the classic sense, but it is captivity, with keepers providing food and veterinarians providing health care. Then they were released during the 1990s and now repopulate their native range in Mongolia. Are they a reintroduced native species or not? And what is the difference between them and E. caballus in North America, except for the time frame and degree of captivity?

The key element in describing an animal as a native species is (1) where it originated; and (2) whether or not it co‐evolved with its habitat. Clearly, E. caballus did both, here in North American. There might be arguments about “breeds,” but there are no scientific grounds for arguments about “species.”

The non‐native, feral, and exotic designations given by agencies are not merely reflections of their failure to understand modern science but also a reflection of their desire to preserve old ways of thinking to keep alive the conflict between a species (wild horses), with no economic value anymore (by law), and the economic value of commercial livestock.

Native status for wild horses would place these animals, under law, within a new category for management considerations. As a form of wildlife, embedded with wildness, ancient behavioral patterns, and the morphology and biology of a sensitive prey species, they may finally be released from the “livestock‐gone‐loose” appellation.

Please cite as: Kirkpatrick, J.F., and P.M. Fazio. Revised January 2010. Wild Horses as Native North American Wildlife. The Science and Conservation Center, ZooMontana, Billings. 8 pages.

 

LITERATURE CITED

 

Azzaroli, A. 1990. The genus Equus in Europe. pp. 339‐356 in: European Neogene mammal chronology (E.H. Lindsay, V. Fahlbuech, and P. Mein, eds.). Plenum Press, New York.

 

Azzaroli, A. 1992. Ascent and decline of monodactyl equids: A case for prehistoric overkill. Annales Zoologica Fennici 28:151‐163.

 

Azzaroli, A. 1995. A synopsis of the Quaternary species of Equus in North America. Bollttino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana. 34:205‐221.

 

Azzaroli, A., and M.R. Voorhies. 1990. The genus Equus in North America: The Blancan species. Paleontologica Italiana 80:175‐198.

 

Benirschke K., N. Malouf, R.J. Low, and H. Heck. 1965. Chromosome compliment: Difference between Equus caballus and Equus przewalskii Polliakoff. Science 148:382‐383.

 

Fazio, P.M. 1995. ʺThe Fight to Save a Memory: Creation of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (1968) and Evolving Federal Wild Horse Protection through 7 1971,ʺ doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, p. 21.

 

Feist, J.D., and D.R. McCullough, Behavior Patterns and Communication in Feral Horses, Z. Tierpsychol. 41:337‐371.

 

Forstén, A. 1988. Middle Pleistocene replacement of stenoid horses by caballoid horses ecological implications. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 65:23‐33.

 

Forstén, A. 1992. Mitochondrial‐DNA timetable and the evolution of Equus: Comparison of molecular and paleontological evidence. Ann. Zool. Fennici 28: 301‐309.

 

George, Jr., M., and O.A. Ryder. 1986. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the genusEquus. Mol. Biol. Evol. 3:535‐546.

 

Hibbard C.W. 1955. Pleistocene vertebrates from the upper Becarra (Becarra Superior) Formation, Valley of Tequixquiac, Mexico, with notes on other Pleistocene forms. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, 12:47‐96.

 

Hofreiter, M., Serre, D. Poinar, H.N. Kuch, M., Pääbo, S. 2001. Ancient DNA. Nature Reviews Genetics. 2(5), 353‐359.

 

Kruger et al. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis and species allocation of individual equids using microsatellite data. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 122 (Suppl. 1):78‐86.

 

McGrew, P.O. 1944. An early Pleistocene (Blancan) fauna from Nebraska. Field Museum of Natural History, Geology Series, 9:33‐66.

 

Orlando, L. et al. 2009. Revising the recent evolutionary history of equids using ancient DNA. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. www.pnas.org/cai/doi/10.1073/pnas.0903672106

 

Quinn, J.H. 1957. Pleistocene Equidae of Texas. University of Texas, Bureau of Economic Geology, Report of Investigations 33:1‐51.

 

Vilà, C., J.A. Leonard, A. Götherström, S. Marklund, K. Sandberg, K. Lidén, R. K. Wayne, H. Ellegren. 2001. Widespread origins of domestic horse lineages. Science 291: 474‐477. 8 Weinstock, J.E., A. Sher Willerslev, W. Tong, S.Y.W. Ho, D. Rubnestein, J. Storer, J. Burns, L. Martin, C. Bravi, A. Prieto, D. Froese, E. Scott, L. Xulong, A. Cooper. 2005. Evolution, systematics, and the phylogeography of Pleistocene horses in the New World: a molecular perspective. PLoS Biology 3:1‐7.

 

Winans M.C. 1989. A quantitative study of North American fossil species of the genusEquus. pp. 262‐297, in: The Evolution of Perissodactyles (D.R. Prothero and R.M. Schoch, eds.). Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

 

Ω

 

Jay F. Kirkpatrick, Director, The Science and Conservation Center, ZooMontana, Billings, holds a Ph.D. in reproductive physiology from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University.

 

~

 

Patricia M. Fazio, Research Fellow, The Science and Conservation Center, ZooMontana, Billings, holds a B.S. in agriculture (animal husbandry/biology) from Cornell University, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in environmental history from the University of Wyoming and Texas A&M University, College Station, respectively. Her dissertation was a creation history of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, Montana/Wyoming.

 

Please note: This document is the sole intellectual property of Drs. Jay F. Kirkpatrick and Patricia M. Fazio. As such, altering of content, in any manner, is strictly prohibited. However, this article may be copied and distributed freely in hardcopy, electronic, or Website form, for educational purposes only.

 

Help Wyoming wild horses find homes away from slaughter

PM Steve Mantle

Adopt from Mantle Ranch. If you can’t adopt then share this to help the mustangs.

Steve Mantle was mentored by Brian Neubert who was mentored by Bill and Tom Dorrance.  Steve works with wild horses using natural horsemanship methods.

Steve’s ranch has a contract with BLM to adopt out wild horses. He has taken in many Wyoming horses to help them get homes. Recently he accepted many from the Rock Springs Corral that was being cleared out for the Adobe Town/Salt Wells roundup.

We recommend getting an untamed or halter-gentled wild horse from Steve and his sons.

When no one came forward to adopt Tibet, he went to Mantle Ranch where we picked him up. We had a positive experience with Steve and recommend him. Steve is a good horseman with vast knowledge who genuinely cares about the horses.

People like Steve Mantle help keep wild horses out of the slaughter pipeline but they need our help. If you or your friends can adopt one or two horses from Steve then he can help more wild horses.

Contact Mantle Ranch by email: Mantle9@WyomingWireless.com and by phone: 307-322-5799

Meet Steve and his sons:

 

 

 

Links of interest™:

Tom Dorrance: http://tomdorrance.com/

Bill Dorrance: http://www.billdorrance.com/

Ray Hunt: http://www.rayhunt.com/

Brian Neubert: http://www.bryanneubert.com/

Mantle Ranch: http://www.mantleswildhorses.com/

Remember sharing is caring.

BREAKING NEWS: Oakland to protest Reno’s wild horses facing slaughter

Reno: Damonte wild horses trapped w/ cruelty

Nevada trapper drags 4 month old foal by string around neck to send to auction (Photo © Bo Rodriguez)

For immediate release:

BREAKING NEWS: Bay Area Residents Protest Killing Wild Horses near Reno

Barbie Hardrock stands up for American mustangs from Europe

OAKLAND, Ca. (January 4, 2013)–Protect Mustangs, the Bay Area-based wild horse preservation group is organizing a peaceful protest during rush hour tonight outside the Rockridge BART Station (College Ave. in Oakland) from 5 p.m. to 6:30 p.m. Members of the public of all ages are gathering to show they want the cruelty & slaughter of indigenous wild horses to stop now. The preservation group recently learned of Nevada’s interest in opening a horse slaughterhouse to kill wild horses on tribal land near Reno. Many protests are being held in conjunction with the Carson City Protest, organized by the Wild Horse Preservation League, where the protestors are marching at midday to deliver Governor Sandoval letters from around the world asking him to stop the cruelty and let the advocates help the horses find homes or sanctuary.

“We stand together to demand a STOP to the crimes against America’s indigenous wild horses,” explains Anne Novak, executive director of Protect Mustangs. “We enjoy photographing the very horses they want to slaughter when we go to Reno/Tahoe. These horses are on the edge of Reno. Did you know horses evolved in America and wild horses are a reintroduced native species?”

“We have been working with The Hidden Valley Wild Horse Protection Fund and other groups to bring awareness to the crisis,” continues Novak. “The public around the world is outraged. Some people even refuse to travel to Nevada because of this. Citizens have requested Governor Sandoval stop trapping native wild horses and selling them off at auctions–where kill-buyers go to pick up horses. He has done nothing–only turned a deaf ear.”

Other protests are being held such as the primary one in Carson City, one in Mill Valley tonight at The Depot Plaza sponsored by Wild horse Protection Act as well as protests held in Phoenix, on the East Coast, Europe and elsewhere.

“We are sharing out posts of people protesting today from around the world. Our first photo came in from Barbie Hardrock’s band, Roquette, in Europe,” says Kerry Becklund, director of outreach for Protect Mustangs. “Join the movement to protect wild horses on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/ProtectMustangs.”

“American mustangs are so beautiful to watch living in freedom but now they are hard to find because there aren’t many left,” explains Hardrock who enjoys visiting the American West to take photos of wild horses.

“Native wild horses create biodiversity and reverse desertification when managed using reserve design,” states Novak. “Roundups and removals are cruel–slaughtering them is a heinous idea. We want to make sure they are protected.”

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Media Contacts:

Anne Novak, 415-531-8454, Anne@ProtectMustangs.org

Kerry Becklund, 510-502-1913, Kerry@ProtectMustangs.org

Contact us for photos, video and interviews

Links of Interest:

BREAKING: Shocking meeting minutes reveal Nevada wants to slaughter wild horses! Read them here: http://protectmustangs.org/?p=3405

News reporting: http://www.therepublic.com/view/story/b4490271c8d34f06a683a62a375d2f2e/NV–Wild-Horse-Slaughter

Protect Mustangs in the news: http://protectmustangs.org/?page_id=218

America’s wild horses are native: http://protectmustangs.org/?page_id=562

Requests to Governor Sandoval: http://protectmustangs.org/?p=3189

Barbie Hardrock protest photo: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10151389882539756&set=o.233633560029004&type=1&theater

Rocquette’s website: http://rocquette.com/

The law and the BLM roundups: http://protectmustangs.org/?p=3248

Mill Valley protest sponsored by Wild Horse Protection Act. Jan 4th 5:00-7:00 pm at the Depot Plaza. Info here: https://www.facebook.com/events/296738457113266/?suggestsessionid=5884581321357255870

Here are ways you can take action: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=454780331247658&set=a.240625045996522.58710.233633560029004&type=1&theater&notif_t=photo_commentMore information here: http://protectmustangs.org/?p=3343

Sponsored by Protect Mustangs www.ProtectMustangs.org where you can find a lot of information on the wild horse crisis.

Protect Mustangs is the California-based preservation group whose mission is to educate the public about the American wild horse, protect and research wild horses on the range and help those who have lost their freedom.

Barbie Hardrock joins Protect Mustangs' Oakland protest through the web (Photo © Rocquette)

Barbie Hardrock joins Protect Mustangs’ Oakland protest through the web (Photo © Rocquette)