Fire Brigade: Wild Horses And Their Value Proposition

By: William E. Simpson II – cover photo BLM – all others by author

When I see wild horses locked-out of nature in holding corrals, I see a huge resource being wasted by ignorance. It’s akin to putting an entire fire department in jail during fire season! If they’re not wanted on cattle-ranch lands that’s fine, but there are places where there is no competition issues with cattle, where these horses can serve a greater good. Here’s what I mean…

Like many other local and west-coast ranches, our ranch and its lands are located in rough mountainous terrain. And like many other areas with varied mountain-valley terrains, we have a lot of grass (fuel for fires) and underbrush on normal years since there are no-longer large herds of deer grazing it off or cattle in the area. Cattle and sheep ranchers moved-out of the local areas long ago due to excessive numbers of predators and difficult terrain for managing domestic livestock.

It’s worth considering that In 1960 we had about 2-million deer grazing in CA, whereas today we have less than 375,000 deer in the entire State. And that there is a direct mathematical correlation between the loss of large herbivores and the increase in catastrophic wildfires.

Now the stage has been set, and this year the fuel on the ground due to an exceptionally wet winter and spring, is excessive, with dense grass and brush that represents a very serious fire hazard to area homes, ranches, pastures and forests.

It’s just amazing to me that most of the people running the forests and counties haven’t made this realization yet and taken appropriate actions. And there is an appropriate cost-effective action and solution available, that is unless they like seeing these wildfires devastate our landscape and ecosystems at the great expense of taxpayers!

Wild horses can prevent catastrophic fires because they are able to consume dry, fire-prone vegetation over vast areas of the west.

The relatively very few horses we have up here in our area truly help with excess fuel abatement, but in order to have a real solution, we’d need another 5,000 deer and 500 horses in the local area just to mitigate some of the wildfire risk in and around our 950-acre ranch, which is surrounded by tens of thousands of acres of both private and some forestry lands, along with the Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument to the north. The 60 horses that are around the area can’t begin to control all the grass on our lands let alone neighboring lands, even with all the other herbivores combined, so we worry a lot when the summer lightening storms show up like earlier this week.

Our local horses eat the young poison oak, scrub oak, tips of buck brush and star thistle (before the spikes come on) and the grasses as they browse (they move relatively fast as they graze, compared to cows).

Growing-up on a ranch made me a very practical person, so using a natural resource to deal with a very serious problem just seems logical. And in the scheme of things, I don’t see how cattle-industry politics on wild horses is solving or paying-for our fire situation and the huge annual costs incurred in money, property and lives that are paid by rural cities and counties.

Given the unabated fire hazard facing our County and hundreds of other counties annually, and the huge direct and tertiary costs for those fires in lives, property and money, I think it would wise to immediately begin the re-introduction of wild horses into areas that are not used by cattle and which have inadequate large herbivore (deer-elk) herds to help mitigate the insane fire hazard by reducing extensive grass and brush cover. Wild horses are experts at grazing in difficult terrain and may be obtained without cost from the BLM’s holding corrals outside of Reno, NV, Palomino, Susanville and Litchfield CA, as well as Burns OR. There are other BLM centers where horses are being held in southern CA as well as in other states, including UTAH, Colorado, Wyoming and elsewhere. These many BLM wild burro and horse holding facilities are conveniently located near many of the worst wildfire areas in America, including AZ, CA, NV, CO, WY and OR.

From what I have observed (prodigious amounts of vegetative fuels from a wet winter and spring), we’re in for a potentially devastating fire season this year on the West Coast.

If the County wanted (or at least some private property owners), it could adopt some of the horses that are available (free). It seems silly not to take advantage of what horses do so very well naturally, instead of spending millions of taxpayer’s dollars preparing-for and fighting catastrophic wildfires, and suffering the related losses of property and lives.

Obviously, some ranchers and land owners who are opposed to wild horses could opt out, and instead use cattle, bison or sheep, but those herbivores cost money and require much more management and oversight than wild horses, which evolved in the area and are a native species. The thing about wild horses is that they fare-well on their own and horses aren’t devastated as badly as sheep and cattle by lions, wolves and coyotes.

However, with that said, I should note that our small herd of local horses has nevertheless suffered a net drop in population due to the death of older horses and predation of younger horses. So in just the past 4 years, we have to our knowledge a 10-animal net loss; we’ve named/photographed them, so we keep fairly close tabs on the local herd as we study their benefits to the local ecosystem.

Something that is often overlooked, even by wild horse advocates is that wild and feral horses are also highly beneficial to trees and forests! They graze-off the grass and brush (fuels) under the trees. And as they do, they break-off and crush dry fuel branches into small pieces, which when come into contact with the soil, break-down into humus. This is something that other critters cannot do since it requires a large herbivore. Left unabated, these low-hanging dry branches and fuels under the trees add tremendous heat under the trees during fires, which can damage and burn even heat resistant trees that have heavy or specialized bark.

Horses also add humus to the ground via their manure. This is done when the horses shelter under the trees and in other areas they frequent. I have a dozen photos that exhibit these important points. The results are envious, even to experienced park-maintenance personnel.


A juniper tree frequented by horses

 


A juniper not frequented by horses has abundant fuel underneath.

 


Another juniper tree with lots of fuel at its base…

 


A juniper tree (seen above) that is frequented by horses stands-out and is visibly more vibrant and more fire resistant (note health of its canopy) than nearby junipers that are not frequented with sparse dry canopies.

We have dozens of trees on our lands that are frequently used by the local horses in both summer and winter and you can point them out from a 1/4 mile away due to their healthy robust canopies. Wild horses have a symbiotic mutualism with all trees and grasslands, and they create park-like grooming under trees they use for scratching (breaks-off and clears dead branches close to the ground) and shelter from weather and sun.

As a land-owner worried about fires and losing trees, the horses provide a service with genuine value that is most welcomed and is very cost effective!

There is just too much false and misleading information about wild horses floating around these days, much of which disparages the temperament of wild horses as one of many obtuse excuses to damn them to BLM holding pens, or worse yet, to a painful and hellish slaughter. And for Christians who actually follow God’s laws and the Bible, horses or burros must not be eaten according to Leviticus-11 and Deuteronomy-14.

Contrary to rumor, the vast majority of wild horses don’t have a malicious bone in their bodies. It’s the abuse at the hands of people that gives horses a bad attitude and when any animal loses its trust of humans, of course it becomes defensive and people can and do get hurt.

The foregoing claim about wild horses is best exemplified by an encounter my wife and I had with a wild horse we met for the first-time on a mountain top behind our ranch. This home-video provides some genuine insight into my claim: https://www.facebook.com/1794284444132872/videos/1867554620139187/

Today, that same horse has grown into sweet-mannered adult with a mutualism to the forests and grasslands where he lives along with the other families of horses and the few deer that remain in an area that is racked with predators as a result of mismanagement by Fish & Game. It’s also interesting to see that the few remaining local deer use the horses as cover from predators and will graze close-by to the horses for added protection and as a warning system.

County planners should take advantage of this cost-effective fire brigade, which is not unionized, doesn’t require health benefits, needs no breaks and never sues the county for HR issues. How can you beat that?

The BLM holding corrals in Litchfield, CA and at all the other holding facilities throughout the the west currently have over 40,000 horses available for fire mitigation duty… let’s put them to work doing what they do best!

Links of interest:

Wild Horses Prevent Wildfires: http://protectmustangs.org/?page_id=4255

Protesters want to end native wild horse abuse and use mustangs to fight wildfires: http://protectmustangs.org/?p=4197

California Wildfire Report: Where are all the wild horses and burros? http://protectmustangs.org/?p=2729

U.S. property exposed to wildfire valued at $136 billion says report: http://protectmustangs.org/?p=2474

Protect Mustangs is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization dedicated to the protection and preservation of native and wild horses. www.ProtectMustangs.org



Mr. President, Wild horses are an indigenous species who prevent wildfires

Wild horses prevent wildfires as an essential part of the thriving natural ecological balance. When the BLM removes native wild horses we see a direct increase in catastrophic wildfires.

It would be much cheaper and better for the environment to leave wild horses alone on public land. Predators exist and fill their niche if Wildlife Services would only stop killing them.

The truth is wild horses are underpopulated. Even the National Academy of Sciences said there is “no evidence” of overpopulation. Perhaps that’s why there are more wildfires.

Bands of wild horses reduce hazardous fuels in areas with varied terrain without the use of poisonous herbicides and that’s good for the environment. Dedicated federally protected wild-horse habitats cover only 11% of public land so increasing their habitat would help prevent more wildfires.

It’s time to look at wildfire prevention holistically. Wild horses should be moved back into the Tahoe Basin area to bring back the balance lost to roundups and removals. Right now there are too few left and the wildfire risk is high.

Please stop treating America’s wild horses like invasive species Mr. President. Read about native wild horses here: http://protectmustangs.org/?page_id=562  Thank you.

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Protect Mustangs is a 501c3 nonprofit organization who protects and preserves native and wild horses.




Breaking News: Protesters want to end native wild horse abuse and use mustangs to fight wildfires

PM Wildland Fire Risk 2013

Wildfire risk potential version 2013, data origin & source: USDA Forest Service

`

For immediate release:

More than 40 international protests today to stop the roundups and stop horse slaughter

OAKLAND, Ca. (April 27, 2013)–Protect Mustangs™, the Bay Area-based native wild horse conservation group, is holding protests today in Oakland and Rock Springs, Wyoming to save indigenous wild horses from roundups, abuse, slaughter and pass the SAFE Act. The Oakland rally is held outside the Rockridge BART station from 3:30 to 6 p.m. The Rock Springs rally is held at 70 Gateway Blvd at 2 p.m. The group wants all the wild horses in government funded holding to be returned to the range to help reduce wildfires. More than 40 international protests, spearheaded by Nevada’s Patty Bumgarner on Facebook, are being held to save the horses. Protect Mustangs™ requests Congress stop the cruelty, the slaughter and save taxpayer dollars–especially during the Sequester.

“We are united across the country to say no to slaughter, roundups and cruel overectomies in the field,” states Anne Novak, executive director of Protect Mustangs™. “We want our wild horses to be protected. Did you know America’s wild horses are indigenous? Are you aware that CalTrans found ancient horse fossils while digging the fourth bore of the Caldecott Tunnel?”

The horse, E. caballus, originated in America over a million years ago and returned with the Conquistadors if it ever went extinct in the first place. With history written by the Inquisition, one must read between the lines. It was heresy for Old World animals, such as the horse, to have originated in the heathen Americas.

Novak points out,”Recent DNA testing proves our iconic wild horses are the same species as E. caballus–the original horse.”

Esteemed scientists Kirkpatrick, J.F., and P.M. Fazio explained the following in Wild Horses as Native North American Wildlife (Revised January 2010). The Science and Conservation Center, ZooMontana, Billings:

‘The key element in describing an animal as a native species is (1) where it originated; and (2) whether or not it co‐evolved with its habitat. Clearly, E. 6 caballus did both, here in North American. There might be arguments about ‘breeds,’ but there are no scientific grounds for arguments about ‘species.’

The non‐native, feral, and exotic designations given by agencies are not merely reflections of their failure to understand modern science but also a reflection of their desire to preserve old ways of thinking to keep alive the conflict between a species (wild horses), with no economic value anymore (by law), and the economic value of commercial livestock.’

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) received $78 million last year to run the Wild Horse and Burro Program. Two-thirds of the expenses went towards caring for the equids in captivity. Despite the federal budget crisis, the program received a $2 million increase in funding for their 2014 fiscal budget–including $6 million for the helicopter contractor.

California’s Senator Feinstein chairs Energy and Water subcommittee as well as rules on Interior issues within the Committee on Appropriations. The Committee gives taxpayer dollars to fiscally irresponsible and cruel wild horse and burro roundups despite public outcry.

Roundups and removals are linked to mining and toxic fracking in the West. It appears native horses are being removed to fast track the extractive industry’s use of public land for private profit yet the public and the environment are hit with the costs.

Native wild horses will soon be zeroed out from Wyoming’s “checkerboard” public-private land–allegedly in preparation for the largest natural gas field in the country. The conservation group has requested a $50 million fund be created to mitigate environmental distress from fracking on the range.

“Tourists love to come to Wyoming to see our wild horses,” states Melissa Maser, outreach coordinator for Protect Mustangs™ in Wyoming and Texas. “We’d like to see native wild horses protected for future generations.”

Advocates are documenting wild horses being removed throughout the West as healthy and with fewer foals. The starving and overpopulation myths from BLM spin doctors are fabricated to sway Congress to fund roundups and removals.

“We’d like to find a win-win for wild horses in the West,” explains Novak. “Native horses will help reduce wildfires that cost insurance companies billions of dollars annually and contribute to global warming. We have requested the BLM put a freeze on roundups and return the 50,000 wild horses stockpiled in holding to public land. This will take the burden off the taxpayer and help to reduce wildfires.”

Protect Mustangs™ is devoted to protecting native wild horses. Their mission is to educate the public about the indigenous wild horse, protect and research American wild horses on the range and help those who have lost their freedom.

# # #

Media Contacts:

Anne Novak, 415.531.8454 Anne@Protect Mustangs.org

Kerry Becklund, 510.502.1913 Kerry@ProtectMustangs.org

Photos, video and interviews available upon request

Links of interest:

Gone viral~ The Associated Press, February 10, 2013: Wild-horse advocates split over interior nominee http://seattletimes.com/html/localnews/2020332496_apnvwildhorses1stldwritethru.html

US property exposed to wildfire valued at $136 billion says report: http://www.artemis.bm/blog/2012/09/17/u-s-property-exposed-to-wildfire-valued-at-136-billion-says-report/

KQED Horse fossil found in Caldecott Tunnel: http://science.kqed.org/quest/2011/05/26/new-fossils-from-the-caldecott-tunnel/

Gone viral~ The Associated Press, March 24, 2013: Budget axe nicks BLM wild-horse adoption center http://www.denverpost.com/colorado/ci_22862206

Horseback Magazine: Sequester prompts call for wild horses and burros to be returned to the wild http://horsebackmagazine.com/hb/archives/21568

Horseback Magazine, March 8, 2013: Protect Mustangs calls for fund for Wyoming wild horses http://horsebackmagazine.com/hb/archives/20979

Horseback Magazine: Group takes umbridge at use of the word “feral” http://horsebackmagazine.com/hb/archives/19392

Ruby pipeline and wild horse roundups? http://www.8newsnow.com/story/12769788/i-team-bp-connected-to-wild-horse-roundups

BLM’s 2014 Budget: http://www.blm.gov/wo/st/en/info/newsroom/2013/april/04_10_2013.html

Why are the wild horses being removed? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tCWWgOugF2U

Wyoming Tourism’s video of wild horses: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0tRZkBXkbyY

Protect Mustangs™: www.ProtectMustangs.org

Protect Mustangs™ on Facebook

Protect Mustangs™ on Twitter

Protect Mustangs™ on YouTube

Protect Mustangs™ in the News

Information on native wild horses: http://protectmustangs.org/?page_id=562 

Wildfire! Take down the fencing so wild horses and burros can escape

Dead wild horse was trapped in unsafe cattle guard (Photo © Craig Downer)

Sent to Jeff Fontana with the California BLM, August 17, 2012 9:43 am, copied to the Director

Dear Jeff,

Will an open gate be adequate for wild horses and burros to pass through in a panic? How long are the gates? What about all the fenced off acreage? How tall are most of the barbed wire fences?

We ask the BLM to take down fencing to ensure wild horses and burros will not be trapped and be able to escape to safety.

How many wild horses and burros are left in the HMA right now?

Please send me a PDF of the BLM’s order to ranchers as well as the order to fire crews to leave the gates open for the wild horses and burros passage to survive during the wildfire.

We would like to be updated regarding sightings of wild horses and burros with specifics on location and headcount.

Besides ranching what other multiple use is present on the Twin Peaks HMA? Will the wildfire be coming close to energy and or mining projects and therefore cause environmental pollution? How will this be mitigated?

Thank you for your kind assistance and your help to ensure wild horses and burros will be able to escape the fire.

Sincerely,
Anne Novak

Anne Novak
Executive Director
Protect Mustangs
P.O. Box 5661
Berkeley, California 94705

Previous email on this issue:

——– Original Message ——–
Subject: RE: Twin Peaks wildfire
From: “Fontana, Joseph J”
Date: Fri, August 17, 2012 8:48 am
To: Anne protectmustangs
Anne,

Sorry for delay.  Rush fire has been demanding.  It is unprecedented up here in size and extreme behavior.

As for the Mustangs:

As of Friday, Aug. 17, there have been no sightings of injured or deceased mustangs or burros.  A group of burros has been seen in an area that had been burned earlier during the fire, and they are safe.  Observers on a flight yesterday saw two small groups of healthy wild horses in unburned areas.  No other groups have been observed.  Resource specialists in the BLM Eagle Lake Field Office feel that prior to the fire the horses and burros most likely moved to higher ground as they left dried up water sources for fresh water sources.

Ranchers have been removing cattle from grazing allotments, and the BLM has directed them to leave gates left open to allow the horses and burros free passage across the range. The BLM has directed fire crews to leave gates open, and shares this message at twice daily briefings with the incident management team.

The BLM shares the concerns of those interested in the well-being and safety of wild horses and burros and is taking actions to ensure the animals are able to move throughout the HMA.

Public lands in the fire area have been closed to protect public safety.

Fire updates and maps are available at www.inciweb.com.

I have added you to the email list for fire updates

From: anne@protectmustangs.org
Sent: Thursday, August 16, 2012 3:55 PM
To: Fontana, Joseph J
Subject: Twin Peaks wildfire

Dear Jeff,

Please send me all the information about the Twin Peaks wildfire and let me know if you are taking fences down so the wild horses and burros can survive by moving out of harm’s way.

Best wishes,
Anne

Anne Novak
Executive Director
Protect Mustangs
P.O. Box 5661
Berkeley, California 94705

 

Wildfire in California herd management area

NorCal 2 Type II
Interagency Incident Management Team
Rush Fire
CA-BLM-NOD
Ravendale, California
Fire Information Office:
Staffed 8:00 am to 6:00 pm

For Immediate Release: August 17, 2012 @ 8:00 am

RUSH FIRE UPDATE

Started:  August 12, 2012 at 6:42 pm

Cause:  Lightning

Fuels:  Fire is burning in sagebrush, juniper, and grass

Estimated Size: 204,359 acres

Containment: 30%

Expected Containment: 8/22/2012

Committed Resources: Approximately 468 people

Structures Threatened: 36 (30 residences; 1 commercial; 5 outbuildings)

Structures Damaged or Destroyed: 1 (barn)

Injuries: 2 (both in fire camp)

Location: The fire is located on Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Northern California District (BLM-CA-NOD,) Eagle Lake Field Office, approximately 15 miles southeast of Ravendale, California.  The fire is burning near a major natural gas line and transfer station, and power transmission lines that supply the Reno area.

Summary:   The fire pushed south and east over the top of Skedaddle Mountain as well as spreading east of Observation Peak. Firefighters made good progress to secure the northwestern fire edge. Fire crews will continue to construct handline, dozer lines, and complete burnouts operations as conditions permit in an effort to further contain the fire.

Possible thunderstorm activity is in the forecast for the next two-three days. This fire has showed significant growth from thunder cell downdrafts on several occasions.

Voluntary evacuations of structures along eastern side of Highway 395.  Structure protection is being implemented by fire crews. Residents along Mail Route/County Road 502 and Garate Road were notified that voluntary evacuations for that area are in effect. The fire is currently within ½ mile of US Route (Highway) 395.  The public needs to be aware for the need of possible intermittent closures of Highway 395 due to fire activity and public safety.

Area and Road Closures in Effect: On August 16, the BLM issued a closure order for public lands in the fire area to protect public health and safety.  The closed area is bounded by Highway 395 on the west, the Sand Pass Road on the east, and the Wendel Road on the south.  The new northern boundary for the public land closure is the Juniper Ridge, Tuledad, Stage Road, Marr Road, and Buckhorn Road extending to Nevada Highway 447 in Washoe County. Routes closed within this closure area include the Ramhorn Springs, Rye Patch Road, Shinn Ranch, Stoney, Deep Cut, Smoke Creek, Skedaddle Ranch, Dry Valley, and Brubeck roads. The Ramhorn Springs Campground also is closed.

Travelers along the Highway 395 corridor, please use caution near the fire crews and equipment working in the fire area.  Highway 395 may be closed due to fire activity.  Please check for current road conditions with CalTrans at http://www.dot.ca.gov/cgi-bin/roads.cgi or 800-427-7623.

Remarks: Fire officials remind residents and visitors that fire restrictions are in effect for public lands and national forests in northeast California.  Campfires are permitted only in posted recreation sites.  Chainsaws may not be used after 1:00pm daily.

For additional fire information, go to InciWeb @ http://inciweb.org/incident/3151/ or follow us on Twitter @ https://twitter.com/NorCalTeam2.

 

BREAKING NEWS: Fire next to wild horse holding facility near Reno ~ Prayers needed

We are posting updates here

July 3, 2012 1:15 p.m. Ironwood fire is 90% contained. News 4 reports http://www.mynews4.com/mostpopular/story/Ironwood-Fire-is-50-contained/dry6RBxk502RkA-w6YCc5Q.cspx

July 2, 2012 11:45 p.m.  Much gratitude to the firemen. Prayers to keep all the residents safe. The winds have changed directions and the wild horses are downslope. Let’s hope the mustangs stay safe through the night. Thank YOU everyone for your prayers. Thank you Taylor James for contacting us and taking photos. Thank you News 4 and 8 for covering the story. Scared mustangs ripped from their homes and trapped in pens, with a fire across the dirt road . . . We hope they are OK from all the smoke exposure. The fire is not out yet.

 

July 2, 2012  Palomino Valley fire tonight.  (Photo by Lynda Moyer from News 4 page)

News 4 Karen Griffin reports: http://www.mynews4.com

Kolo Channel 8 reports: http://ww2.kolotv.com

10:00 Tune into News 4 at 11 for coverage on the fire

9:32 Anne Novak spoke with someone who was in on the press conference and “per the Fire Chief the mustangs aren’t threatened anymore.”

News 4 reports: http://www.mynews4.com/news/local/story/Ironwood-Fire-burns-in-Palomino-Valley/dry6RBxk502RkA-w6YCc5Q.cspx

UPDATE: 9:28 pm According to Charles Moore with Truckee Meadows Fire, the Ironwood Fire started around 6:30pm and has burned 250-300 acres.The original call had the fire being at 20 X 30 feet, but quickly grew in the time it took for fire crews to arrive, which was between 20 and 30 minutes.No structures have been burned, but the fire burned around at least 12 structures and those 12 structures are still threatened.There are 60-70 firefighters on scene. The fire is burning in rugged terrain, most of the fire has been fought from the air.The Sheriff’s Department has been doing evacuations. Search and Rescue have been warning people and there have been no injuries so far.Firefighters have been called back because it’s too dark to fight the fire, but they will be attacking the fire at daybreak.The cause is still under investigation. Wind is not a big concern for tonight. Because of the fire burning in Caughlin Ranch earlier, crews were able to quickly attend to this fire.BLM stables were threatened for a time, but are not threatened anymore.The next press will be at 6:00am.
RENO, Nev. (KRNV & MyNews4.com) — A fire has started on the right side of Pyramid Highway in Palomino Valley. It’s being called the Ironwood Fire. Structures are threatened and deputies are on scene to help people evacuate, according to Washoe County’s North Sergeant.According to Nevada Highway Patrol, southbound on Pyramid Highway has been reopened, but northbound is still closed.News 4 has a crew on the way and will bring you more information as it becomes available.

 

Breaking News from Protect Mustangs

The fire started at about 7:00 p.m. across the road from Palomino Valley Center outside of Sparks Nevada. Photographer Taylor James was at the facility when the fire started and contacted us. 

“The smoke was entering the pens,” reports Taylor James, photographer. “The mustangs were running back and forth in a panic–in the pens.”

7:00 p.m. Palomino Valley Fire July 2, 2012 Across the dirt road from the American mustang holding pens (Photo © Taylor James)

 

Wind blowing smoke into pen at 7:00 p.m.

7:00 p.m. PVC Fire Across Dirt Road from wild horses trapped in pens. Smoke entering pens July 2, 2012 (Photo © Taylor James)

 

Captured wild horses at beginning of fire. The fire is across a dirt road from the horses. The horses are downslope.

7:00 p.m. PVC Fire July 2, 2012 Mustangs in pen across from fire  (Photo © Taylor James)

 

7:20 p.m. PVC Fire & Smoke July 2, 2012 (Photo © Taylor James)

 

PVC Fire July 2, 2012 From Highway (Photo © Taylor James)

Roadside entrance to Palomino Valley where wild horses are held in pens after being rounded up and processed.

7:35 p.m. PVC Fire  July 2, 2012 Highway entrance to short term holding (Photo © Taylor James)

More photos coming.

All photos by Taylor James. Press may use photos crediting the photographer.

Taylor James’ Facebook page is here: http://www.facebook.com/UpCloseandPersonalPhotography?ref=ts